Archive for Reading Notes

Chapter 14 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Giving Speeches and Presentations

Speech is a powerful communcation tool

      Speech must be prepared for listeners, not readers

      It must fit the audience and the occasion


     Requires clear objectives, effective organization of relevant key messages, knowledge of the audience, and a close working relationship with the person who will be giving the speech.

Nonverbal communication

      Important in a speech

The reccomended length of a speech is 20 minutes which is equal to 10 pages double spaced.

Speeches provide opportunities for additional publicity by

      1. inviting the press to cover it

      2. preparing news releases

      3. distributing audio and visual clips

     4. converting the speech to an op-ed piece

     5. reprinting it in a brochure

     6. posting excerpts on a web page

     Speakers should be enthusiastic and make eye contact with the audience


Chapter 13 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Writing for other Media

Two strengths of print publications:

     1. they can feature in-depth stories

     2. can reflect the “face” of the organization

Editor must balance:

     1. management expectaions

     2. employee needs

     3. journalistic standards

The newsletter is the most comon organizational publication.

     Online newsletters set on a n organization’s internet often contains more color, graphics, and photos

Magazines are the most expensive publication and are often sen to both internal and external audiences


     Brochures vary in format and size from a single sheet of paper folded into panels to multiple page pamphlets and booklets

     in order to write or design a brochure you need to know its purpose, the target audience, ad the most cost-effective format

     requires simple sentence construction, informative healines, liberal use of subheads, and short paragraphs

Chapter 11 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Getting Along with Journalists

A. The Importance of Media Relations

     1. Media relations is the core activity in many public relations jobs

     2. One survey of 539 large companies by the Public Affairs Group found that media relations was the number one job responsibility of their public relations staffs.

B. The most common complaints journalists have about public relations people, according to a PRWeek survey are:

     1. lack of familiarity with editorial requirements and format

     2. poorly written materials

      3. too many unsolicited e-mails and phone calls

       4. lack of knowledge about their product or service

        5. Repeated calls and follow ups

C. Tips for Public Relations Practitioners

     1. If you need to set the record straight, begin with the reporter who wrote the story

     2. Don’t irritate reporters by asking, “Did you get my news release?” Also, don’t ask to see an advance copy of hte story or when a story will be published

       3. Crisis comunications is a test of excellent media relations, You need to work closely with the media to assure tha the public is fully informed

Chapter 10 Notes

Reaching the Media

  1. Media Databases
    1. Provide essential information such as:

                                  i.      names of publications and broadcast stations

                                  ii.      mailing addresses

                                   iii.      telephone & fax numbers

                                  iv.      e-mail addresses

                                  v.      names of key editors and reporters

  1. 3 main databases

                                   i.      newspaper & magazines

                                                             ii.      radio/TV/cable

                                                            iii.      Internet media

  1. Editorial Calendars
    1. A listing of topics and special issues that a periodical will feature throughout the year
    2. Tip Sheets
      1. Weekly newsletters that report on recent changes in news personnel and their new assignments, how to contact them, and what kinds of material they are looking for.
      2. Distribution of Materials
        1. The vast majority of publicity materials are now distributed in digital and electronic formats
        2. Today’s primary distribution channels are:

                                                               i.      e-mail

  1. the oldest feature of the internet
  2. approximately 10 trillion e-mails were sent in 2006

                                                             ii.      online newsrooms

  1. has 5 key components
    1. Contact information
    2. Corporate background
    3. News releases and media kits
    4. Multimedia gallery
    5. Search capability

                                                            iii.      electronic newswires

  1. 3 major newswires:
    1. Nudinrdd Eitr
    2. PR Newswire
    3. Marketwire

                                                           iv.      mat distribution campanies

                                                             v.      photo placement firms


Chapter 9 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Writing for Radio & Television

  1. The Wide Reach of Broadcasting
    1.  Radio reaches about 94% of adults over the age of 18 on a daily basis
    2. Total audience of about 225 million
  2. Radio
    1. Radio lacks the glamour of television and the popularity of the Internet, so it is not always the first medium that public relations people think of when planning an information campaign.
    2. Approximately 13,500 radio stations are on the air in the US, ranging from low-powered outlets operated by volunteers to large metropolitan stations audible for hundreds of miles.
  3. Radio News Release
    1. Format

                                                              i.      The standard practice is to write a radio release using all uppercase letters in a double-spaced format.

                                                            ii.      Give the length of the radio release

  1. Timing is vital because broadcasters must fit their messages into a rigid time frame that is measured down to the second

                                                          iii.      More conversational style of writing

  1. Audio News Release
    1. Can take two forms:

                                                              i.      Someone with a good radio voice reads the entire announcement

                                                            ii.      using an announcer but also include a soundbite from a satisfied customer, a celebrity, or a company spokesperson.

  1. This approach is better than a straight announcement because the message comes from a “real person” rather than a nameless announcer.

                                                          iii.      Format

  1. 60 seconds long
    1. including a 20 seconds or less soundbite
    2. Accompany any sound tape with a complete script of the tape

                                                           iv.      Production

  1. carefully written and accurately timed script
  2. record the words

                                                             v.      Delivery

  1. once it is produced the PR professional must notify the news department that an ANR is available. Give the subjet of the reease and tell editors how to retrieve it.
  2. Satellite Media Tours
    1. The television equivalent to the radio media tour
    2. Started in the mid-1980’s
    3. staple of PR industry
    4. talking heads

                                                              i.      used for SMTs, today’s most successful SMTs are more interactive and dynamic

Chapter 8 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

The Importance of Publicity Photos

Photographs and graphics are important components of news releases and feature stories. They add interest and variety, and they often explain things better than words alone.

Components of a Good Photo

1. Technical Quality

2. Subject Matter

3. Composition

4. Action

5. Scale

6. Camera Angle

7. Lighting and Timing

8. Color

Working with Photographers

1. Finding Photographers

You should have a file of photographers, noting their fees and particular expertise.

2. Contracts

a.  Any agreement with a photographer should be in writing. A written document helps you to avoid misunderstandings about fees, cost of materials, and copyright ownership of the images.

b. A Contract should cover:

1. What is the photographer’s profession fee for taking pictures

2. How many out-of-pocket expenses

3. What will be delivered upon completion of the assignment

4. Who will supervise the photographer

5. Who will retain the images?

6. Nature of use

7. Photographers

3. The Photo Session

You will save time and money with regard to the photo session if you plan ahead

4. Cropping and Retouching

a. The two primary techniques for editing photos are cropping and retouching.

b. Cropping is editing the photo by cutting off parts of the picture that you don’t want

c. Retouching is done to alter the actual content of the photo.

Writing Photo Captions

Caption: A brief text under the photo that tells the reader about the picture and its source

5. Ethical Considerations

Chapter 7 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Planning a News Feature

1. Conceptualize how something lends itself to feature treatment

2. Determine if the information would be interesting to and useful for a particular audience

3. Be sure that the feature helps achieve organizational objectives

Types of Features

1. Case Study

2. Application Story

3. Research Study

4. Backgrounder

5. Personality Profile

6. Historical Piece

Parts of a Feature

1. The Headline

2. The Lead

3. The Body

4. The Summary

5. Photos and Graphics

Placement Opportunities

1. Newspapers

The primary use of features generated by public relations personnel is in the special sections of daily newspapers

2. General Magazines

Usually have their own staffs and regular freelancers who write features, but they do rely on public relations sources for ideas and information

3. Specialty/Trade Magazines

1. 2 Types of magazines:

1. Ones that serve particular interest and hobby groups

2. publications that serve a particular industry

4. Internal Publications

Chapter 6 Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Fact Sheets

1. A list of facts in outline or bullet form that a reporter can use as a quick reference when writing a story.

2. Often accompanies a news release or a media kit

3. May form the basis of a whole story for a reporter, or the reporter might use just one or two of the facts provided to supplement the information in the news release

Media Advisories

1. They tell assignment editors about upcoming events that they might be interested in covering from a story, photo, and video perspective

2. The most common format uses format uses short, bulleted items rather than long paragraphs.

Media Kits

1. Usually prepared for major event s and new product launches

2. Purpose is to give editors and reporters a variety of information and resources that will make it easier for the reporter to write about the topic

3. A basic media kit may include:

1. A main news release

2. A news feature

3. A fact sheet

4. BAckground information

5. Photos and drawings with captions

6. Biographical material on the spokesperson or senior executive

7. Some basic brochures

Electronic Media Kit

1. Advantages

1. More versatile than traditional printed media kits, because they can include multiple pieces of information in a variety of formats

2. It expands the potential audience. It has the potential of reaching a wider audience of consumers, bloggers, online forums, and other websitesvia social media tags and RSS feeds.

The Pitch

‘1. The purpose of a pitch letter is to convince editors and reporters to cover an even or do a story.

2. Pitches to editors must:

-be brief, raise interest, and come immediately to the point

3. Pitch letters a re customized to each editor based on the publication’s content, demographics, and circulation.

4. E-mail pitches must have succinct creative subject lines.

Chapter 5 Reading Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Chapter 5 Reading Notes

  1. *A news release creates awareness about ideas, situations, services, and products*
  2. The Value of News Releases
    1. Cost Effective
      1. i.      Almost any organization can create and distribute news releases at a nominal cost compared to the cost of buying advertising.
    2. Credibility
      1. i.      Studies consistently show that people consider information in a news story to be much more believable than an advertisement
  3. Planning a News Release
    1. Selection of Paper
      1. i.      White paper measuring 8.5×11
    2. 20/24 lb weight
    3. *The use of colored paper for a news release does not get much support from experienced publicist, despite the logic that colored release will stand out from the hundred of releases that pile up in a newsroom.
    4. Spacing and Margins
      1. i.      Double-spacing is the standard for printed news releases
      2. ii.      News releases via e-mail and the Internet are single-spacing
      3. iii.      Standard margins for a printed news release are 2 inches from the top of the page and about 1.5 inches from each side and the bottom of the page.
  4. Use Ap Style
    1. Associated Press Stylebook is the standard reference fr writing news releases because most American newspapers use “AP style”
  5. Types of News Releases
    1. Announcements
      1. i.      Personnel appointments, promotions, and changes; new products or services; reports of sales, earnings, acquisitions, mergers, events, awards, cntst, policy changes, employment opportunities, anniversaries, price changes, new employees.
    2. Spot announcements
      1. i.      When things due to some outside action or influence happen to an organization
    3. Reaction Stories
      1. i.      When an event or situation has an impact on the organization
      2. ii.      To hitch on to a news event or public issue that, although not directly involving the organization, has some bearing on it.
    4. Bad News
      1. i.      A release giving facts and the organization’s point of view should be drafted immediately
    5. Local News
  6. Parts of a Traditional News Release
    1. Letterhead
      1. i.      First page of news release
    2. Contacts
      1. i.      Directly after letterhead
    3. Headline
      1. Appears in boldface and in a slightly larger type than that used in the body of the news release
      2. Purpose is to give an editor or journalist a quick indication of what the news release is about.
      3. Supposed to give the “bottom line,” the most newsworthy aspect of the story. Headlines should be factual, devoid of hype, and to the point.
    4. Dateline
      1. Appears in all capital letters at the start of the lead paragraph
      2. The city where the release originated, plus date
    5. Lead paragraph
      1. The most important part of any release
      2. 1-3 sentences
      3. Give the reader the basic details of the story or entice the reader to read the second paragraph
      4. Types of leads:
        1. Straight summary lead
        2. Informal lead
        3. Feature lead
    6. Body of text

Chapter Reading Notes

Notes taken from:Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

Chapter 1 Reading Notes

Objectives of a PR Writer:
2. Persuade
3. Motivate

Purpose of PR writing is ADVOCACY or trying to gain support of the consumers for the product trying to be marketed

Guidlines/Rules for PR writers:
1. Know the audience
-What are the demographics of the people you are trying to reach
-Age, gender, etc.
-What is the best way to get through to this audience
2. Avoid jargon
-Confuses the reader and creates “roadblocks” (pg. 23)

Chapter 2 Reading notes

Basics of Communication
1. Sender
-The person or company trying to get the message across
2. Message
-What is being said
3. Channel
-How the message is reaching the audience (newspaper, television, press release, etc.)
4. Receiver
-The intended audience

Chapter 3 Reading Notes

-words, pictures, cartoons, that expose a person to public hatred, shame, disgrace or induce an ill opinion of a person. (p. 62)
(pg. 63)Defamation damages are awarded to the extent of the following four points:
-The statement was published to others by print or broadcast
-The plaintiff was identified or is identifiable
-There was actual injury in the form of monetary losses, impairment of reputation, humiliation, or mental anguish and suffering
-The publisher of the statement was malicious or negligent

Chapter 4 Reading Notes